The Alavids or Alavians(سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Mazandaran (Tabaristan) of Iran. They were descendants of the second Shi'a Imam (Imam Hasan ibn Ali) and brought Islam to the south Caspian Sea region of Iran. Their reign was ended when they were defeated by the Samanid empire in 928 AD. After their defeat some of the soldiers and generals of the Alavids joined the Samanid dynasty. Mardavij the son of Ziar was one of the generals that joined the Samanids. He later founded the Ziyarid dynasty. Ali, Hassan and Ahmad the sons of Buye [bu:je] (that were founders of the Buyid or Buwayhid dynasty) were also among generals of the Alavid dynasty who joined the Samanid army.

Their capital was the city of Amol.

List of Alavid Amirs
Hassan ibn Zeid "Da'i Kabir" "Great Missionary" (864-883)
Mohammad ibn Zeid (883-900)
Samanids capture Tabaristan Alavis flee to Gilan in exile (900-913)
Hasan ibn Ali “Nasir Kabir” “Great Defender” (913-916)

Split of Alavis: Anti-Samanid & Pro-Samanid:

Hassan ibn Qasim “Da’i Saqir” “Young Misionary” (916-928)

Ahmad ibn Hassan “Nasir Kabir” (916-923)
Jafar ibn Hasan “Nasir Kabir” (916-924)
Mohammad ibn Ahmad (924-927)
Hassan ibn Ahmad (927)


Province with an area of 24,091 square kilometers of lush northern provinces of the Iranian plateau is located in the Caspian Sea coast. The province of Gorgan in the West and East Gilan province is south and Semnan provinces, Tehran and Qazvin borders. Caspian Sea north of the border of the province is fully.
Mazandaran province of ancient archaeological studies in the caves and Hvtv belt in GR, human life in this province around 9500 BC estimates. Mazandaran current part of a broader land on which the texts of the name "Frashvragr" and "Ptyskhvargr" Yade said. Researchers, Mazandaran and Gilan due to proximity and due to natural and geographical conditions similar, generally being the name and all areas south of the Caspian Sea and Azerbaijan and Khorasan are in the area know one. Of the inscriptions of the Achaemenid Inscription Name "Ptshvarysh" is recorded. Tabari dark and people living in this area always the best shooting, bow owners, sling set up, Swordsman and dart wars starting in the Achaemenid kings with other governments are defined. "Astrabn" search Greek geographer; this range as "Prkhvatrs" take up.
Number of historians and writers, from the root word of Mazandaran word "maze" means "castle" know. People on the command "Maziar Ben Qarn" famous Sardar Complex, to prevent parts of the Arab influence sensitive region of Mazandaran and began to build the castle as "Maz" + "location" means "the castle" is knew. Hejazi side writes: is not unlikely that Mazandaran, Aryan immigrant residence, the name of their God "Ayndr" is taken. If the two components of Mazandaran "Maze" and "Ayndr" will be formed. "Maz" Mz forms, لها, Mhy and Mzy means large, and Ayndr (Indar), the name of their God. These two components "Great God" and the pronunciation of Mazandaran Mazandran or "Land of the Gods" or "Land of God" are the pride of.
Some form of the name of Mazandaran Maz + involved + the know. Maz Mazandarani language is said to bee and those who accept the roots of Mazandaran meaning "where the bee is" know. Mazandaran province is green and Basfayy numerous natural attractions, historical, cultural and social in its place is. Value of this stream of exquisite natural and historical perspectives have is rich. Vision North province sides of the sky-blue sea, beautiful and peaceful forms of Mazandaran and the southern landscape dense forest covered slopes of the Alborz. Valleys and perspectives surrounding province of amazing effects of nature are shown. Caspian Sea around the sides of citrus gardens, Shali Zarha culture Zarhay green and covered with villas and residential centers and amazing effects and beauty are created. Waterfalls Mazandaran due to natural conditions, there are also mountains and in the thicket and forest, and in some mountainous areas, the combination of the time are set. Valleys of the province along the river and pulled the density of the surrounding forests for long has learned a variety of vegetation. Types of historic attractions such as Imam Zadeh, the mosques, bridges, water storages, castles and palaces along with many other attractions to this region of Mazandaran province, one of the most attractive and popular regions of Grdshgrtryn has become province in terms of natural and geographical position in any provinces of Nature and superior pole of tourism is considered. Nearly 12 million domestic tourists and tens of thousands of foreign tourists each year to spend leisure time to visit this province. There Caspian Sea (Caspian Sea) with a beautiful beach and appropriate, along with having Domain forested mountain of Damavand peak 5670 meters high, caves, waterfalls, rivers, numerous hot and cold water, mineral springs, wetlands especially in GR Miankaleh Peninsula, more than 800 historical monuments such as the collection of identified historic cities of Amol and Sari Chalus province to use a variety of tourists with different incentives has become.


Family Marlik so fast and sudden and terrible probably happened to someone the opportunity to object and stealing expensive price has not found it.
Slightly away from the green mountains in the heart of Rudbar forest mass Gilan Marlik in essence, is adjacent valley, is staring eyes and if you know when the area around the first millennium BC, ancient ethnic artists and creative input of people Iranian plateau has been دلت eyes to see spiritual beauty of the region will be brighter.
A group of expensive research Marlik believe the two words "snake" the snake and "Lake" means a hole is created and because the mass Marhayy live in this hill; to be called. Thus, legendary snake and treasure this hill to find the real case, but some words for a term historical Marlik know any of the two "screw: Ethnic screw" and "Lake tribe, meaning people and" is made. If this theory is true, Treasury Marlik Amard of the people of Iran belongs to indigenous tribes.
Family Marlik so fast and sudden and terrible probably happened to someone the opportunity to object and stealing expensive price has not found it
The first archaeological excavations in Marlik and the surrounding area was conducted in 1343 and explore the 53 graves that regularly made together was discovered. Dead skeletons along the side, with the Zanvhay bent piece of stone were Rmydh objects Qymyty frequency, respectively. This was probably fixed Marlik Cemetery kings and their families in this region is.
Marlik owners and almost no Sarkhty Originally remains have Ngzardh but review findings of the archaeological and geographical studies seem to people that this group of hill tribes of India and Iran and possibly among the ancient tribes that screw or Amard pioneering in the second half of the second millennium BC into the region and the northern slopes of Alborz Jebal southern shore of the Caspian Sea have been deployed; are. They gradually in the region to green and climate and a developed country flourished formed. This family of at least two or three centuries or more probably the tenth to fourteenth century BC have been in this residential area.
It seems after this date, ethnic Marlik have left the area. Similar objects obtained from the cemetery with objects Marlik Silk B show the relationship between the two regions and ethnic Marlik experts believe that after leaving its territory to sudden migration hill Silk said.
Remain immune to what Qbvr Marlik during centuries of rule and how the immigration or the loss of their shows is a few points: First, that this government had this much power that prevents residents from robbery to be Qbvr. Second, immigration Marlik so fast and sudden and terrible probably happened to someone the opportunity and find the stolen objects is not. The third point about this time that the area being rocky, and with the growth of plants and hiding Qbvr, access to them is not.
The latter Qbvr very rare and expensive works price obtained, including various machinery equipment, weapons, sword, dagger, pottery, such as female Accessories barrette, necklace, needles Mnqsh to animal and plant designs, ear cleaner gold and bronze, kitchen utensils, spinning wheel, and the Cup is very beautiful. The objects of gold or silver, and bronze and Decorating on a very beautiful and artistic it is done. Among the ruins Marlik piece of cloth that time has been found that show the old cloth weaving industry in this area is like burnt city.
In these works, Cup Marlik Art is unmatched sample the world-famous
In these works, Cup Marlik Art is unmatched sample the world-famous. This Cup Zrnab height of 18 cm is made in the end artist. Height relief of the UEFA Cup is 2 cm. This relief is a tree of life in Balarftn 2 horned cattle on both sides of the tree are.
The other other Marlik has been discovered that, to living legend known. The FIFA 20 cm height and 14 cm in diameter that are opening. Life story as the Cup from the beginning of a gazelle birth until killed by a wild boar with all the details will show. This World Cup also is unique in its kind.
Other unique Cup, Cup horse is horned. This World Cup 5 / 17 cm in height and 12 cm Diameter is. This Cup gold is more yellowish red and gold to be hard because it has remained almost intact. The Cup and the middle concave indented edges Cup and made the swing of the metal has been WIRE. Cup horses on the role of the horned repeated several times and distances between the decorated with wild flowers is Lily. Treasury Marlik beauties will not lead to the same place, but all of them mentioned in this article require more opportunity.
By Simin and Golden Cup, sumptuous dishes and relief of another masterly Marlik Treasury beauty and art of ancient Iran and confirmed that this famous speech: Arts and cease with the Iranians, the same tail Spydm on until today

Mazandarani language

Mazandarani language (to Mazandarani: Mazen or Maznyky) the name of one of al-Tabari language Iranian languages and one of the Northwest branch of Iranian languages. The language in the provinces of northern Iran (especially in the land of ancient Complex) is spread by people Mazandarani. According to 1993 statistics, and 3-4 million, it was spoken as native language and language experts believe that with a difference is of Persian

On language

5th century AH. AH governor Mazandarani Complex with Pahlavi language and coin Myngashtnd Myzdnd. Two inscriptions in the Pahlavi in the Rskt Dodangeh Sari Vgnbd Lajym County has obtained Mu'ayyad this comment. Recently, several manuscripts of literary translator language Tabari and greyhound back to harvest copies of the Quran found that this language can download them from the language Tabari in the first centuries after Islam was an extensive literature. Moghaddasi noted that language Complex language and Jrjan Qvms province is close, but while it is Shtabzdgy lot Vha intended.

Language historic properties

Compared to other Iranian languages, Mazandarani influenced and affected no reviews of Arabic and Turkish history and the changes in Brdhast survived, although several centuries words Byganhay languages, Turkish and Arabic into the language, and today was also criteria due to Persian influence in the region to use this language to decline Iranians.

Literature Mazandarani

Main article: Literature Language Mazandarani Mazandarani (Tabari old) was a considerable literature. Know that the book "Marzban letter" Tabari was written language and the language is Parsi Dari translator. Ibn Esfandiar Tabari language Divan poem with the name "Niki letter" will tell it to Ibn Rostam Marzban Espahbod Ben Shervin author Mrzbannamh "is compared. Qaboos letter two bits in the language of the author Tabari recorded. Ibn Esfandiar some poets of this land that Tabari language learning and poetry Mygfthand example of Vrdhast Srvdhhay them. In "on the embryo" Amélie Avlya’allh also poets ابیاتی Mazandarani Tabari language is recorded. Collection of the two Bytyhay Tabari "Amir and prominent poet called" Amir Pazvry "is attributed, in Mazandaran there that" Darren Bernhard »East knowing Russian version and earned them the title" Knzalasrar in age Ptrz Burgee (or - Ptrz Bvrgh age) with the refrain has published translations Forums.

Name and attribute

Mazandarani language grammatical gender exists. Total number of different extensions by including "- Van" and "- Game" takes place. Adjective comes before the name. For example: "thorn Book meaning" good book ".

Some historical places of Mazandaran

Historial Basabad
Collection of historical monuments Basabad province is.
This collection of gardens, Abbas abad GR city and 9 km range Alborz Mountains and rainforests were among the most important and historic gardens and the largest in Iran.

This set the order of Shah Abbas Safavi years 1020 and 1021 AH. Khrgvran AH in earlier times was made up and is now the most important gardens of desert considered non-lead. Extent it is close to 500 hectares.

Abbas Abad Gardens GR 9 km city and the Alborz Mountains range, and located among dense forests.

Dave Tower general
Peak Tower Dave overall literacy mountain city is located in Mazandaran province. Total words in Mazandaran language is meaning nest. The tower of old stone and brick built and recently refurbished Grdydhast. 8 unilateral plan that is building four meters diameter and 5 / 3 meter is. Around the roof and walls of the short rectangular Lngrhay been seen. 3 window around the monitor it and a gate has been embedded in the ceiling for progression to have in the roof. In the past Hfaryhay هائی discovered the skeleton of the head gear of July & the effect they vault seen which indicates the loss of them is in the Jng·hayy. The building next to Village Road Rastvpy and white heather to the bridge at a Crossroads Red Abad and stone stairs from the road surface with easy access to work.
Strait of cut
Part of the way around the Haraz Vanna General Trading ancient artefacts to the old way to Ray Amol it is evident. The most important works, including two wall stile Steady as two half-columns that sky-high to Haraz river bed is made.

Nasser al-Din Shah to travel the remaining pieces of the Parthian period, and some researchers considered the contemporary construction time they know Sassanid era.

Cave Espahbod sun
Espahbod solar cave or castle Krkyl the way to Tehran Firouzkooh Do Ab city area of literacy is the mountain province. This cave had been Khtyrkvh the chest and historical texts to the Gothic castle Grgyly Aisha was read. County area in the language of this cave is known to Lap waist.

Dzhy this cave as a natural, was always used Espahbod Complex. Of Islam and simultaneously with the revolt Complex, this cave was the resort Vndad Hormuz.

Length of arc natural arch and the great cave and forty meters into the cave as the length of the oval Forum 75, width 25 and height is 15 meters. The cave wall with stone and mortar and deposited to the entry continues. Building this wall will be open to the Sassanian period. The cave has been dreadful precipice Seen it very difficult to make. Due to drinking water in the cave, in the past, the possibility that long-term resistance of Dashthast.

After the date has been 142 years HAPPY when the Arabs were for the conquest of Mazandaran enter the cave reached the foot. Espahbod sun ruler of Mazandaran Jbhhay outside the cave in the other Dylmstan busy fighting with the Arabs. Rbhayy cave at the bottom of any of Urdu were struck were unable to enter the cave to cave for three months were at the bottom and for alternative thought were influential in this cave lady Nicolas, spouse Espahbod sun was not his wife, ruler of this castle . Corps Arab water sources that were found upstream of the cave, according to poison the water threw Ahaly but the date [edit] water was contaminated with plague microbes, with contaminated water cave dwellers about 400 people suffering from plague disease Who were they did not dare burial. Ney that the dead woman Kla Mysprd soil was to plague patients. Nicolas which has destroyed the girls saw their Mhkla Shhkla and captured when the moon months in a tower above the temple was managed with competence all the three sound Espahbod زد. Day castle declined and two daughters and four girls lady straw Kla Sardar Vndadvnd, better, brocade, and Zimmer and Perry and most Arabs captured Dramdnd Nvamys Complex. This cave as historical texts to date Arch Complex Ayshh Grgyly castle is named Bob The appellation it is such a woman to the Islamic period in Ayshh Mthsn castle had been a group of pirates and the pirates the total had far and Krkyl (looting) lived this to the castle Ayshh Krkyl told. Also near the cave that remains is Qlhay Bajygran castle is known.

Caravanserai pass
Caravanserai pass in Mazandaran province, city literacy Mountain, is located in the pass.
This 25 km south of the heather, the Simplon mountain pass known as the Turkish, or Gdyk means cervix is located and the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid, and therefore to the occasion is also known as Shah Abbasi Caravanserai. Property of the building that had been 30 meters long. Next page situated around the main entrance and rooms made by several northern and southern travelers for rest were considered. Front door of the main entrances of the single room Tuesday, there was probably predominantly Shah. The eastern side of the 50 meters in length. This also Caravansary the Safavid era is important.
The caravanserai point of history because they are also very important. When the mother of Reza Pahlavi (Reza Shah future) due to loneliness and financial problems first decision of immigration and life Alasht to Tehran with his brother takes off with a caravan in Tehran, Mazandaran, which is Mobile. Simplon pass that point is very cold even in summer holiday as many days, this trip is May Grfthast barrier. Young children (Reza) is hard for patients where everyone Mrdhash Mypndarnd and separation from their mother and their Mntqlsh Ghly the same house until after Dfnsh must. Cause animals body heat recovery in children. This event with little difference between the successive close and everyone has been quoted Reza Shah Reza Shah to believe that the incident has defined them.
This house is now turned into parking machines and mechanized snowplow toll pass and pass in the vicinity of the police is the way

Games Mazandarani

walnut or aghoz game:

The two players walnut two arranged on each other and with each turn to the whole or dark walnut (larger walnut) Suppose a walnut. If the first person to set-walnut Game clip them currently "winning is considered to be dark and the other players he was able to throw anyone to the owner all nut otherwise first person to accumulate all the walnuts.

Cade Marka:

Players are divided into two groups. Game or two pieces of wood and wood powder and Marka large or need. First group, small wood on to the Gvdaly then large wood in small wood and turns it to the long side to throw up. Context of each player to the greater distance, the group wins the people riding the winners can be losers.

Resin ka:

Y shape by resin wood is a two-piece rubber bottom strip of wood will be closed. Silt player Mark Stone and drag it towards the rubber back will throw stones and hand-will hunting.

Sling game:

Demonstration of traditional games, especially in the West of Mazandaran province, rope game. The game often "the wedding was held. Bazan string two people one person as the top of the rope way is open and another stands on the bottom detent. Unleash top rope with the head assembly or put on board bike path is on the ropes and also below the critical detent emoticons and comical movements will entertain the audience after the denouement pawl rotates between the audience and sweets and money to accumulate the money and the landlord are sweet.

Loocho wrestling province of local ships in the past and the wedding was performed. But today in some parts of this province every year ship in the summer after weed Shali, when leisure villagers work is done. In other spending, such as religious and national Ayad Loocho wrestling also be held and a prize winning cows that are purchased by people.
Competition for two experienced wrestlers are selected as a judge in ship strike any opponent's body or head, getting finger, Srchngk and shoulder butt and get to the ear, an error is considered. Making the ship two weeks Tmams defeated opponents, is the victor. Competition held during the drum-maker and is also played to orgasm give more competition.


Other entertainment durable, military ceremony in the village of cow milk Kla city of light Mattress local language is called war. Competition each year and a week after Loocho wrestling in early August to be held for 10 days. Competition before the people place money necessary to charge fees to be collected. A few days before the race through the historic competition held to inform villagers Vshhrha and even neighboring provinces will be given. Costs by keeping guests in the village and rent money collected is paid.

"Svchla or traditional hunting methods in water point:

One way to central revenue villages in Mazandaran Birding traditional method when the low point water is blue. Mid-autumn birds such as swan, goose, Chngr, types of duck and ... Cold parts of the Caspian Sea coast that has a temperate climate, immigration and more water to that point because of culture Shali, location is suitable for feeding birds, are immobile. This hunting in the early fall of each year to 15 Persian month Esfand dark night with no archery equipment traditional hunting and local regulations will be done. During this time, water and grazed point shooting distance of around 500 meters is prohibited. This type of hunting by tours and more predominantly mud villages, Sydmhlh, Zarin Kla, and musk Larym Abad Road, Sari - Babolsar Khazar Abad road is done.
Traditional fishing method "day temperature":

Hunting day to day temperature usually "in late October with the migration of wild birds sad day is done. For a few days before the migration of wild birds, duck Game bred in place to keep fishing to the environment used do. Gvdaly then place the desired area of 20 square meters are drilled. the pit in a vertical grid to which cotton is closed. head hunters in the yarn is to wild birds entering the area duck Sort by Total wild birds are to Pyvndnd them toward the pit Kshannd. then kill the hunter thread on tour pit falls and the birds are animals exist.

Mazrvn series ion

Before the arrival of Aryans to Iran and Mazandaran native people of this region through subsistence hunting and cattle lived significantly. Archeological studies in the caves belt and GR Hvtv human presence in Mazandaran to reach about 9500 BC. Aryan race immigration territory in north-eastern borders of the current millennium BC began with indigenous or Mykhtnd Tayq them came. Mazandaran current part of the broader land of the texts date with "Trshvargr" and "Ptyskhvargr" have to learn. Researchers, Mazandaran and Gilan adjacent to the cause and because of the natural and geographical conditions similar, generally intended the name and all areas south of the Caspian Sea between Azerbaijan and Khorasan, and are to consider a region. This about the time of the Achaemenid inscriptions Bisotun Ptshvarysh name is recorded. Tabari and men living in the dark area always in the best shooting war with the government other Achaemenid kings are introduced. Astrabn Jghrafyanvys this range as the Greek "Prkhvatrs» Name of living. Tabari War Game Vmrdha Darius III with Alexander the Macedonian "Gvgml" were responsible for a significant presence Ngahbany Imperial and his family were. Alexander conquered Iran, not through war of Complex conquered. Complex due to specific climatic conditions of the Ancient Days position governing the contents of family relatives. The first person in a written ruling by historians as the Complex from the city mentioned is Atvfrdat or Farhad Party. Complex because of the government land close to extinction Part Parthian actually Ashkani were under government hegemony. At the time of the Sassanid Empire state area command, was a king. If, when the throne of Ardashir, the administration of this section to "Gshnst King" or "Jsnst Shah was.
Amard were an Asian tribe in the West are Mazrvn Zystnd. They were the first in Anatolia, but Marvi expelled them from there and they were forced to land in Mazandaran social center of the city was Amol. Amol is the same Mrd Amol during the centuries has become. Next came the Aryans to Iran among them, and they Drgrft war based on a small tribe in wars and eat defeat in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Pars were released.

Tpvrha a tribe that historians say they were after Mrdha Mazandaran in Iran were released in the reconstructed. They were a warrior tribe in the Iranian Revolutionary Guards always attended the Royal Guard. Test the assumption that a few years ago proved that the generation Tpvrha The Aryans and Asian race were not.

Volume Aryans

After the coming of the Aryans to the Tabaristan Satrapi called Aryan race. Tpvry but more of their elders were ordered to the government to rulings Land had a way. Based on this, most on the Mazandaran Frmayy death were local kings. Traditionally the Mazandaran and Gilan Satrapi are united, and he read "Frshvargr" or "Ptyskhvargr" say sitting. Strabo, the Greek historian, of this land "Prkhvatrs" is named. Bstvn The inscription of this land between the north and Azerbaijan and Khorasan in the "Ptshvvarys" Name community. Dvtn the names of local rulers in the inscription are Aynchny: Atvfradat the Parthian period was the government. And other Jvshnsf Gvshnsf or that he was at the time of the Sasanian ruler. But 1500 years ago until 500 years ago, Mazandaran was a semi-independent territories who were administered.

Al Qarn
Khsrvshrvyn of Sassanid kings 1500 years ago, one of the elders was called Pars Qarn for sentence generation and Mazandaran Frmayy office is hereditary in his family. Qarn Svkhra son (one of the elders Pars), respectively. He makes a series of Mazandaran Mazandarani calendar is the source. But some believe that 50 years after the migration Qarn Brtkht sitting. Name this dynasty kings Celebrities include: Qarn son Svkhra, Vndadhrmz son Omar, Maziar Qarn second son.
When Gil Jamasb this series became Iran was conquered by Arabs. But they failed to hold because of the Mazandaran Alborz major obstacle to them. In this series Vndadhrmz reign is going to destroy the border, but not destroyed, but more Myabd several other series in this country is founded and Al Qarn Qlmrvv Myabd smaller. This series of about 1200 years ago with the Abbasids, but Maziar little peace of his relationship with this government is bad. Maziar stop learning takes Mazandaran Islam and does not toll Abbasids Abbasids until the campaign and Maziar Mazandaran arrested and killing and to the dynasty Al Qarn is destroyed after 351 years. It should be mentioned that the scope of this government, and more mountainous area at the time of this event Vndadhrmz has reached its peak.
Al Gubaru
172 calendar year to a man Mazandarani Gubaru established series that Gubaru name is Al. The more territory the plains of Mazandaran and Gorgan is today. This lineage of great kings are: Dabvyh son Gubaru, Sarouyeh Psrfrkhan Large (manufacturer Sari), Asphbdkhvrshyd son Dazmyr. This series Gzarysh 111 years after the foundation was destroyed.

This series of branches of Al has been Gubaru Founders Gzarsh Padvsban is. As history makes Padvsban Dabvyh brother and son was small Gubaru However, this series Gubaru the time Al was formed. Padvsbany territory was more Kjvr West Mazandaran, lights, and was included Larijan. Paytkhtshan time was light. Their period of light "Rstmdar", and Kjvr "embryo" are said. Padvsbanyan to 960 years in Mazandaran state. Kings of people Bzrgshan can be noted: Padvsban son Gubaru, Shahriar Padvsban son, Bahman son Kiomars.
With killed Kiomars Padvsbanan Last King of course, but they were extinct Shah Abbas I in this territory with other people Zystnd.

Bavand Dynasty
Bavndyvn of the most important series of Mazandaran. Their base in the south and Mazandaran and Mount Alborz Racing sentence were based on the courses to the kings named Bavand Fereidoon الجبال (King Mountain) would. Al Bavand 700 years in a series of Mazandaran state that this period on Tuesday was dismantled and re-established and based on this series of fill ups and downs know most Iranian dynasty kings Bavand to fear destruction of most of the mountains Qdrtshan Total was.
Founder of this dynasty was called Bav. Kavus man to his son and brother was Shyrvyn. When he learned of Arabs came to the hermit was Tabaristan (this time to a Zoroastrian priest Altar was involved) so that people smoke out the secrets of cracks in Mazandaran to work out and fight for them and Then the official policy it has conquered kingdom.

As was said Bavand Dynasty series three times and then extinguish the re-established three separate branches of the foundation in the three branches are
Kavsyh, Asphbdyh, Kynkharyh and kings in this series are written as:

Kavsyh category (655 to 1000 AD)
"Destroyed by Al zeyar»
Bav son Kavus
Son Sohrab Bav
Mhrmrdan son Sohrab
Son Sohrab Mhrmrdan
Son Sohrab SH
Shahriar son SH
Shapur son Shahriar
Qarn son Shahryar: (Qarn, when Hassan Ibn زيد, known as Dai Britain, fought with the Caliph "CE 864 and the Wii Tabaristan and Gilan, he came on.)
Rostam son Qarn
SH son Rostam
Shahriar son SH
Dara son Rostam
Shahriar boys have

Category Asphbdyh (1113 to 1209 BC)
"Destroyed by: Sultan Muhammad Shah Kharazm»
Shahriar Hsamaldvlh son Qarn
Qarn Njmaldvlh son Shahriar
Rostam Fkhraldvlh son Njmaldvlh Qarn
La’aldvlh Ali al Shahriar
Shahghazy son Rustam Ali La’aldvlh
Shrfalmlk Hasan son Shahghazy
A. son Hasan
Rostam Ardeshir Shmsalmlvk son.

Category Kynkharyh (1238 to 1349 BC)
"Destroyed by: a generalissimo to Bavand Afrasiab Jlavyh»
A. son Kynkhar
Shmsalmlvk M.
La’aldvlh Ali al Kynkhar
Tajaldvlh Yazdegerd son Shahriar
Shahriar son Nsraldvlh Yazdegerd
Rknaldvlh King Kai Tajaldvlh Yazdegerd
Shrfalmlk son Kai
Fkhraldvlh Hasan son Kai

Islamic Slasl
For two hundred years after Islam came to Iran Mazandarani were still Zrtshy. But little by little Mazandarani Game were Muslim. More Mrdmmazndran were Shiite. It was because many of the Sadat and Saudi Arabia to Iraq and the Mazandaran Skhnanshan they were convinced. Slasly that Sadat made the Shia branch were all from the same and were opposed by the Abbasids.

Alavian Tabaristan

The biggest and the first Islamic dynasty were Mazandaran. After Alavian by Abbasids in Iraq and Iran were defeated Tabaristan toward the land was safe and the people came to this territory was familiar with Islam and Shia. Until the Taherian Mazandarani of the weld called Zayd Hassan came to their help and independence in the way of royal officials should accept Hasan ibn Zayd said, and establishes a series Alavian. Taherian front of people that could Mazandaran List Safarian and Abbasids stand. They also hold jimmy said. The time in a manner specific to those who went Dylmstan Dylmyan invited to the Funeral. After Tabaristan Alavian was founded in Saaid also asked to obey the government because this territory is both religion and language were shared.
After the death of Hasan ibn Zayd سرداران Saaid difference between the extinction happened and this was Alavian. This government will rule 64 years. They built the first school in Mazandaran and Mazandarani and the Muslim Saaid said. Shia in Iran for their very hard set.


Al M.
They were a small series that are Zystnd thousand acres. Mortezaian territory south of Neka. They were one of the Sadat Hosseini.

Sadat Marashi
Mrshyan one of Bavand Dynasty Slasl who were replaced in Mazandaran. Marashi Sayed Qvamdyn founder of their dynasty. 877 Tabarri he founded the local chain. This series was Sarbedaran category. Since the Sarbedaran leader Sheikh Khalifa, was Amoli beliefs soon became Mazandaran. The time the ruling was not a good situation in Mazandaran Afrasiab Jlavyh Al Bavand the series will become extinct and the government made in Mazandaran. But the people they were unhappy. The same for the people when Qvamdyn rebellion to him and he could rely on a Corps to provide for themselves. Mrshyan and Jlavyn near Babylon with said buckle and win this war were Mrshyan. They were able to capture both Sari and Afrasiab kill. Mazandaran Mrshyan اینطوری get that. Amol was Mrshyan capital. Next to them were defeated Amir Timur Gvrkany and hyper Alnhr deported. Thus, while there they went to avoid war and power.

When Sultan Muhammad Khvarzmshah the Battle of the Brigades to escape the Mongol, pillar-Din, the Mongols to the position of Sultan Muhammad led a distinguished service to this effect, government by the Mongols, and finally by blue livery was Teymourian layout was dismantled and their governance . Amyrtymvr after death, Sadat Marashi with permission from Shahrokh (850 to 807 AH. C) back to the Mazandaran and held as a tribute to the reign of these areas. Finally, at the time of Shah Abbas Sadat Marashi general power destroyed. Azbrchydh to the feudal regime Tabaristan stall until 1006 AH continued, the area under Shah Abbas the Safavid dynasty and the next kings were provided. Safavid kings frequently as every year during hunting or for the rest Azahdas Frhabad trip to the region.
Afshar Narshah fight enemies, especially North Badshmnan Vrvs, the Drmazndran Dayrkrd a shipbuilding factory and added to boom the more area. Azdvrh Fath Ali Shah Qajar, the green area Zybav Angyzmazndran heart, as a break area and the recreational Nasereddin Shah ordered the Dvsfr repair roads and caravan Sraha issued.
Pahlavi monarchy Drdvran region of Mazandaran, such as through communication Sayrmnatq enjoy due to environmental conditions and local climate temperate, his perspectives Zbba near Tehran, where rest and recreation part of the country.

Celebrity Mazandaran

* Martyr Sheikh grace you. . . Light:
Sheikh Fazl you. . . Light-year 1295 AH celebrity scholars. AH in the village Lashk Kjvr was born. After the scientific and business degree qualifications Ejtehad in Najaf came to Tehran and Tehran province of large bodies of income. Clergymen, he was prominent in the struggle against colonialism. During the constitutional movement, the Taliban and the Constitutional Assembly Mshrvh but opponents Enforcement Ghrbzdgan Islam and accused him of tyranny and finally 13 days of Rajab 1327 AH. AH AH equal to Persian date 11 Mordad, 1288. No. Birthday of Hazrat Ali (AS) after a court trial, he similarly condemned Rsanydnd martyrdom.

* Nima Yooshij:
Nima Yooshij in 1276 AH. No. Yoosh the village functions Baladeh city light section was born. Nzdakhvnd read and write ten learned. The offense in Tehran and in school studying to St. Louis. Dranja Mlmhaysh encouraging one system to fulfill the verse was working. In 1300 the song peaked poem story in the newspaper that published Mirzadeh Eshghi. At the same time the poet laureate poets and Mehdi Hamidi and spring. . . Opposition and hostility began to Bavi. Nima old-style poets poetry and song not his poetry Hemistich were long and short. Can be the most famous poems of Nima legend, IP people, ring and Bird pointed Nima amino Finally, in 1338 AH. Darfany No. Shemiran in the Tajrish said farewell in 1373, and framework Nima Yoosh place during the gala ceremony in the courtyard home burial was.

* Haj Sheikh Mohammad Kvsany:
Haj Sheikh Mohammad Kvsany known verse or ... People of Mountain Village is Bhshhrmazndran Kvsan functions and Shamsi was born around 1275. Education staff with their teachers and technology in Mashhad Najaf completed plant, in asceticism and Vr today renowned throughout the text of Mazandaran and leisure agriculture and science teaching and religious scholars and hernia Rtq Maham Affairs President Khlayq pass. Drqsmt rational and traditional sciences and philosophy and theology Mahrv owner Nafiseh Publications is in this regard. Is known that Hazrat Ayatollah say. . . The late Mr. Seyed Abolhassan Isfahani repeatedly that Frmvdnd pilgrims there are Order عتبات Mr. Sheikh Mohammad Kvsany for Mazandarani mass of Vday is divine. Friary garb with a journey on foot in the 1313 calendar year to Mecca and in some religious authorities Mtbrkh Srbrd. Ayatollah Mountains month you Ziqa'dah 1391. AH the illness was active in patients with asthma Vqlb Rabi 1392 AH. Darfany AH was the farewell of the Funeral and very glorious and unique cities of Gorgan and GR and Ali Abad Katoul and Bojnurd and Shirvan and Quchan and Mashhad, and finally Samen الائمه the holy shrine of Imam Reza (AS) was buried.

* Hasan ibn Zayd, known as Dai Kingdom:
Xia Dynasty Complex Alavian head Hasan ibn Zayd the "motive to al-Haq", "first motive" or "Dai Great" is. Of his early life a lot of information was found, and most researchers and historians to review only the uprising have paid. Aznvshth by historians such that he comes back Musta'in with the caliphate. . . In 250 AH. AH was rebellion.
About why such rebellion Hasan ibn Zayd have written that: When the Complex in the area of rule was Taherian, Amir this series for people with administrative provinces have carte blanche to dispatch. On time
Emirate Mhmdbn Abdullah. . Taheri, Jabrn Aaron Nsrany, to obtain a tax was placed in Mazandaran. The oppression of the people was so large that reliable group of people is inevitably forced to and the Gilan and Dylman were Voyageur. Some other Gallup Poll to come to one of the Alavian Complex Mhmdbn Abraham went and he asked to have led them to take responsibility. But he them towards Hasan ibn Zayd, who later became known as a great motive and the time will stay in Ray, will lead.
Late Allameh Amini has written about him:
Inmate in his religion and principles, and branches appear to "Al Mohammad Reza I" was invited and have written the first one that sepulcher Ali (AS) to the wall and monument maintenance Mobarakeh Pradkht was Hasan ibn Zayd.

* Ayatollah. . . Grand Ayatollah Haj Mirza Hashem Amoli:
In 1322 AH. AH Drrvstay Prdmh seen Larijan functions was born in Amol city. Year 1335 AH. AH the determination to study in Tehran and New Drbdv attention the teacher was late. In 1345 he e. AH to complete their knowledge in Qom Seminary Voyageur stay the course neighborly verses Grand Ayatollahs of Qom Haeri Yazdi, and Kashani. . . Were benefited.
In 1351 AH. AH Ejtehad obtaining degrees from Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi and Ayatollah Hojjat to continue to study the migration to Najaf and 30-year stay in Najaf could large areas of the Phoenix Chapter verses Grand Ayatollahs Haj and Haj Mirza Abol Hossein Esfahani Naini would use. Supreme e squash in 1381. AH returned to Iran and the adjacent Holy sepulcher Hazrat Masumeh (SA) payments to teaching and principles of jurisprudence.
Ayatollah Amoli Ghyraztalyfat very valuable to students and develop technology such as Ayatollah name. . . Sheikh Hassan Hassanzadeh Amoli, Ayatollah Javadi Amoli and Sheikh Abdullah. . . The existence of children had a pleasant and competent that include:
Doctor Mohammad Javad Larijani, doctor Fazel Larijani, Bagher Larijani and Hojatoleslam doctor Sheikh Sadeq Larijani and Supreme Leader celebrity body clean in 1371 AH. Shrine of Hazrat Masumeh Drhrm No. (Q) was buried.

* Ibn شهرآشوب Saravi:
Abvjfrmhmdbn Ali Ibn شهرآشوب Saravi Mazandarani call to "saddle-Din" Vmrvf to "Ibn شهرآشوب" in AH 489. AH was born. His effort and his able Zhmat as one of the biggest Mrvjyn school, books resuscitator Al Mohammad (PBUH) and reproducer of religion in his time is considered. Because of his clashes with Governor of Mazandaran region and to stay out was final Shhrhlb Syria in order to land the business of science to many trips زد.
In his magnanimity enough that scientists of Sheikh Tusi him "Sheikh Altayfh" have read all the books he resuscitator تراجم Shi believes inmate works.
Ibn city chaos further knowledge to meet Aazm Jmat many Islamic scholars found success, including: Ali ibn Beyhaqi Author Date Beyhaqi, popular author Jarallh Zmkhshry Shiite interpretation "Kshaf" pole-Din Razi and. . .
Of his most famous books that they needed several Brjay "book" Managhebo Al Abi Talib (AS) "and the most famous author is indebted. Sdsal he finally Amr after spending about seventy years of hardworking Funeral service, Friday Drshb 22 months of Sha'ban 588 AH. AH remaining land in the city came to Aleppo.

Or Amélie Bvjfrbn Jryrbn II the "Imam Almvrkhyn" most historians believe in you 244. AH was born in Amol. His first major historian and interpreter throughout the Quran is Islam. Publication of several Al-Tabari, a souvenir left Jryr the most comprehensive Qur'anic whose name is Tfsyralqran Bayan fi Tafsir al-Tabari and interpretation of the famous Ibn Jryr. Publication Date Tabari Azdygr He is known mainly known as al-Tabari is the same book. Tabari in 310 Jryr Mhmdbn you. AH died.

* Allameh Hasan Hasan birth Amoli:
Year 1307 in one of the areas seen to the universe was born in Amol. Child, "Hassan" to learn the Quran with a virtuous lady and sent her to learn to read and write Quran payment. Then went to school for the study and science of increasing religious Tlbgy infatuation turned to his hometown at the age of 22 books and religion courses, including preliminaries, the installer Alsbyan, Syvty margins, Shray scholar and taught at once extended line Calligraphy received the necessary skill and in 1329 moved to Tehran and study sessions Amoli and Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Taqi Aqa Seyed Ahmad Lavasani brightness and other courses to learn to pay. Courses Rasa'il Mkasb, Kfayh, references Sheikh الرییس the presence Lmayy as divine Qomshe, Ashtiani, Fazel Tony, can Shrany studentship. But Asna special skill of Mathematical Sciences, won the board and astronomy. Sometimes for the presence of unmatched contemporary philosopher Hazrat Ayatollah Tabatabai way to Qom Vaz Since then serious efforts to research instead of remaining works of duty lasting Farzaneh in the field of philosophy, Islamic mysticism Vmarf is:
Nahj correction of the manuscript Seyed Razi - Arab Jldyn principles enough, Khzayy, summary Almnhj --
Charh-e Fosos Emperor - Full course correction wisdom Mtalyh Mollasadra - correction, teaching and valuable books تحشیه Azqbyl provisions Alqvad Sayn-Din Fsvs Hekam Farabi, principles Euclid Kalila wa Dimna - Quran
Man - Nm Alavlayh - Divan poetry.

* Mr. Haj Sheikh Ayatollah Abdollah Javadi-ye `Amoli Damt wa Rahmatullah wa Barakatoh:
Mbrz professors of philosophy, mysticism, the interpretation of Quran, Fiqh and principles and has many of the Science Publications.
In AH 1312 AD in the city of Amol Rohani had a family was born.> Father of the ulama and Vaz was the city of Amol. After the end of elementary Seminary Courses Amol joined there for five years from the presence of some teachers Barzk·h students were late mullah Khorasani interest Brdv secondary stage and the arrangements and principles of jurisprudence to Hadith completed. In September of 1329 AD with the migration to be left on for Shhraml Tehran with Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Taqi went ye `Amoli.
Subjects interpretation of Holy Quran
Book Alkhms
Shari'ah in the mirror
Tahrir Tmhydalqvad
Book Alslah
Spirituality of Hajj
Dignity in the Quran
Moral agents in the Islamic state
Around revelation and leadership
Secrets Ebadi
Jurist province, the leader in Islam
Rhyq finishing
Nmadv myth

* Ibn Esfandiar:
Moqtada al-Din Muhammad ibn Hasan Esfandiari, author of celebrities and writers on Complex late sixth century and early seventh century AH. Is AH. Unfortunately, the early life of Ibn Esfandiar information and quality education is not much turn. But the post itself on the introduction of such Complex comes back in the rudiment Larijan hometown is learned. Ibn Esfandiari "father on Mazandaran" have called for the first book means that we on the news and is aware of Mazandaran and historians after its studies is considered. Of life in the name dated 613 AH. AH after the date of Complex complete information is available.

* Mhmdbn Jryr bin Rustam Tabari:
Rustam Tabari Jryrbn Abvjfrmhmdbn Amoli مکنی to "Al" and "Ibn Fazel" One of the major Shiite clerics in the late third century and fourth century AH. AH is considered.
One of the major Shia clerics Avakhrqrn third and fourth century AH. AH is considered. Amoli most scholars know his men, but from the Sari Ibn Asfndyarav knows and writes. Jryr Alsrvy Muhammad ibn Rustam, supreme leader, speaker and owner of the Hadith, his religion scholar household (AS) and long service Reza Ali ibn Musa (AS), respectively. Jurisprudence and Hadith and men and interpretation skills, and in fact was one of the undisputed masters of science was considered men. Alhmydh principles, Alayzah the Imamate, and الائمه reasons. . . . Publication of his is considered. Unfortunately, he passed on is not clear.

* Seyed Zhyraldyn Marashi:
Marashi Sayed Zhyraldyn of politicians and scientists of the year 815 or 817 or 818 AH. AH was born in Amol seen. As wise men name the late Ayatollah Ozma Seyyed Shahab al-Din Marashi Najafi notes brought Tbarnamh Mrshyan night due to his multiple saddle العابدین Imam (AS) appears. In addition, Seyed Zhyraldyn the politicians of his time, one of the authors able to age was also considered. His major to history Dvasr Complex and on the embryo and the Mazandaran and Gilan and Dylmstan fact that the two effects supplement each other and to any reliable sources on Sadat Mazandaran and Gilan are considered. He works to profit from the terms and phrases you chew suggests that his vision is Shiite. For his work on the subjects of historical importance and Ashtmal the very beginning has been used on journalists. He e 877. AH from Karkya Mirza Sultan Muhammad Ali's successor Karkya generalissimo Iranian Georgians became a province and as life remains the same rank and position is. This dated back to 892 eventually leading you. AH seen the world died.

* Amyrpazvary:
Amyrpazvary that "Amir Mazandarani" and "Sheikh Aljm" is known, the greatest poets of Mazandaran burnt heart and soul is smooth. Unfortunately, the life of the poet Arif information is comprehensive and accurate turn but what poetry is that he comes back he Pazvar peasant people "area, between Babylon and Babolsar" is. Amir of poetry since hundreds of years ago with songs and appealing for "Amir" without the smallest

Change in Mazandaran is common. He Hazrat Ali (AS) had many special Aradty Verses Quran Majid identically or as resolved has in his poems. Amir are two poems: those who set clear and rational love are his rural naivete; under other poems that chart the surrounding text to the Qur'an and Hadith News and wisdom and philosophy of logic and mysticism. Dvjld his poems called "Divan-e Amir Mazandarani" in 1277 AH. AH died in 1860, according to published Ptrzbvrg. The demise of the Amir as his birth is not known. Biographical Memoir of Contents can be downloaded in Amyrkla he unfortunately died and his grave is not known and called Amyrkla occasion to name his name is called.

* Mrbn Tiberiades:
Abvhfs Mrbn Tiberiades Baghdad engineer and designer, astronomers, translator of the pioneers of knowledge mathematics, Academic, astronomy and architecture and the greatest scientists of Mazandaran second century AH, was born. That his language Pahlavi, was fluent in Arabic and Persian, one of the pioneers in translation is considered. Abu Tabari Hfs undoubtedly the elders of science and Abu became the official representative garden and Academic Rank, Abvyvsf him with Jacob Ben Isaac Kennedy, compared to the Arab philosopher. Including works from his Jamandh include: Alarbh Ptolemy, communities and النجوم Asrar fi science book entry Alqysrany fi short sentences النجوم.
The scientist also passed on such Date of birth despite his efforts it has brought to.

* Iraj Malek-Pour:
Iraj Malek Pour in Shhraml was born in 1319. His elementary and secondary education in the city of Amol and spent the final year high school in Tehran Academy and completed the same year at Tehran University to study physics payment. In 1353 more successful doctoral degree in space and in satellite. Property poor second PhD in physics received stars.
Since 1355 the Institute of Geophysics Tehran University worked. Field doctor property-poor, stars exploding, and many articles are in this field.
His works can be, including: the Iranian calendar year 5000 before the year 3540 AH to 1500 migration. Sat as a 19-volume set has been developed. Iran's official calendar: Report Number 81 staff Tehran University Geophysics Institute, books about mysterious flying saucer, books twenty-volume comparative period.

* Njmay Mazandarani:
Name of Love is the departure of his mistress to "Rana" song that made Sharareh exciting fire and sing with Drvnysh ابیات, that song is called Abvta Nshand down. This story, like play Vis and Ramin and Majnoon story John and Lily melt hearts will describe data, with the difference that singing stories to poets such as name and Gorgan Hakim Fakhruddin As'ad military broadcaster, but real love story that this story is of national stories of this land, and in most parts of Mazandaran, and removed it from the villagers in times of ecstasy and rapture, and wake and wedding chamber and read server. Life history research was not a singer, but is a scholar of ancient times was known as North pages.

* Taliban Amoli:
Mtkhls Mhmdamly the "Taliban" insurgents Amoli Mshhvrbh poet laureate, poets and speakers called eleventh century Hijri and Four Pillars of Hindi poetry is light. Taliban insurgents in Amol, was born in 994 AH and died in India found in year 1036 Hijri. His tomb in northern India Shhrfth Poor henbane, Drjvarmqbrh I trust Bzrgvarsh Dawla
Tehrani, the Chancellor is Mshhvrhnd. Insurgents in India reached a peak on for peak Poetry property Alshrayy court officials reached the peak in 42 years died in honor and credit. Taliban love story and Amélie Mhajrtsh India, field time and seen in the light of the persistent stories in the area has become a culture of Mazandaran. Masnavi Taliban and Venus (Talba), the story of his love to a girl from Venus who Hmdrs his childhood school.

* Seyed Heidar Amoli:
Seyed Heidar Amoli of Shiite elders mystics are the eighth century AH. His birth year 720 AH. AH and died in his Shhraml year 794 AH. AH have quoted. His major works can be "interpreted Almhyt Alazm Fi البحر Alkhzm" and preparations نص Alnsvs "that the" interpretative Shi'i "range name.
Personality characteristics of scientific and mystical and the Shia Seyed Heidar Amélie, constantly in your books, especially in communities Asrar, the privacy and privacy Amamyh Shiite Sufism real defends she believes that between the Islamic religious Shiite Asnashryh that only the right and Shiites are Amamyh prosperity and Shia people and force the school and household cleanliness is the direct path.
One of his professors Full Sheikh "researcher Noureddine Tehrani" and other Abvalmthrhly, child Allameh Seyed Heidar the solution is to "saddle العابدین Sani" is addressed.

* Abvs·hl mountain:
Ibn Rostam Abvs·hl Bijan Mnjmyn of mathematicians and name of the second half of the fourth century and early fifth century AH. Is AH. The early life of his information is very accurate turn. So much is clear that his primary Jebal Complex and was therefore the "Abvs·hl mountain" was nicknamed. This higher magnitude contemporary mathematician Abu Rayhan Biruni and Avicenna Avicenna on for a professor is promises. After learning his knowledge and talents of primary interest because the fields of mathematics and astronomy had to complete their education and with teachers paid Dvrshth In this technology to be their degree of pupillage was masterful. He AH 378. While the presidential Shhrbghdad AH observatory was held by officials of the observation Kvakb arts. In the field of mathematics, Khayam mausoleum, she is known mathematician vires. Schneider said that the so-called cone beam is the description. The most important mountain Abvs·hl works include: "Center Aldvayr Almtmas·h Ali Alkhtvt differently analysis" and book "I fired Alkhtyn Mlvmh angle point to Ali through analysis". This scientist much higher, around 405 AH. Farewell to the AH Darfany said.

Foods Mazandarani

Foremilk Msma:

Chicken of walnut, chicken, Pickled pomegranate is correct.

Week in China:

Rice with meat

Sour Trshv:

Rice with beans, Pickled Plum, like soup to right.


Yogurt to baked beans and garlic is added to hot.


Spinach cooked with pomegranate seeds, lentils, garlic hot orange paste Gvjhv Pomegranate Juice

Ash gourd:

Cooked rice, cooked and mashed winter Zrshk water and sugar has been added.


Mashed eggplant kebab and that it Ryhan verjuice, Jafari Vsyr Powder is added.

Spinach Mrjy:

Include cooked spinach, lentil, garlic, and pomegranate is tart.

K·hy Pomegranate:

Winter bean and lentil cooked with cooked with pomegranate walnut worn Vdanh that their hot garlic added and mixed with the rice is eaten.


Lentil, bean, spinach, red meat, is made of walnut and is mixed with the pomegranate seeds are added to the final course when eating hot food on Ryznd.

Stew prunes:

Chicken cooked with pomegranate seeds, plum and red onion hot.